In Greek mythology, Palamedes (Ancient Greek: Παλαμήδης) was the son of Nauplius and either Clymene or Philyra or Hesione, and a prince of Nauplia who led the Nauplians in the Trojan War.
He is said to have invented counting, currency, weights and measures, jokes, dice and pessoi, as well as military ranks. Sometimes he is credited with discoveries in the field of wine making and the supplementary letters of the Greek alphabet.
Agamemnon sent Palamedes to Ithaca to retrieve Odysseus, who had promised to defend the marriage of Helen and Menelaus. Paris had kidnapped Helen, but Odysseus did not want to honor his oath. He pretended to be insane and plowed his fields with salt. Palamedes guessed what was happening and put Odysseus’ son, Telemachus, in front of the plow. Odysseus stopped working and revealed his sanity.
Odysseus never forgave Palamedes for sending him to the Trojan War. When Palamedes advised the Greeks to return home, Odysseus hid gold in his tent and wrote a fake letter purportedly from Priam. The letter was found and the Greeks accused him of being a traitor. Palamedes was stoned to death by Odysseus and Diomedes. According to other accounts the two warriors drowned him. Still another version relates that he was lured into a well in search of treasure, and then was crushed by stones. Although he is a major character in some accounts of the Trojan War, Palamedes is not mentioned in Homer’s Iliad.
Ovid discusses Palamedes’ role in the Trojan War in the Metamorphoses. Palamedes’ fate is described in Virgil’s Aeneid. Plato describes Socrates as looking forward to speaking with Palamedes after death. Euripides and many other dramatists have written dramas about his fate.